Career paths in the IT industry can be broadly classified into the two main fields of hardware and software. Under hardware, you have manufacturing, maintenance, research and development, and management.
Under software, you have development, architecture , design , testing, and support. Among related areas are computer operations, database administration, sales/marketing, and data-center management.
When you start as Fresher from university, graduate from engineering college or equivalent bachelor/masters in computer science, you will undergo training for a certain period and then be designated as a software developer or programmer.
You slowly move to a ladder senior software engineer, depending on your work and the skills you rise to be Technical lead , Technical Architect or Business Analyst and then a project lead with a span of 2-3 years at each level. If you are selected to work onsite at a customer’s organisation , you will be considered as Onsite Co- Ordinator with a responsibility from both ends to manage the communications and deliveries well.
If you are interested in growing in management then Project manager , Senior Manager, Program manager is the typical path. If the inclination is towards technology and architecture then Technical Architect, Solutions Architect, Enterprise Architect. If you are domain expert then Business Analyst, Senior business analyst, Business Architect etc. The designations and roles vary in each organization and the project needs.